Tag: oceans

Conservation groups seek trade sanctions against Mexico in effort to save the endangered vaquita

Continued illegal gill net fishing cited in push for ban on Mexican seafood

vaquita
There may be as few as 60 endangered vaquita remaining in the Gulf of California. Photo courtesy NOAA.

Staff Report

In what could be a last-ditch effort to save imperiled vaquita in the Gulf of California, conservation advocates are urging the Obama administration to launch economic sanctions against Mexico to halt that country’s trade in totoaba. According to the Center for Biological Diversity, the sanctions would be justified because Mexico is violating the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) by not enforcing the ban on totoaba trade.

The June 28 letter to high level U.S. Cabinet officials is the latest step in a long-running an complex struggle to prevent extinction of vaquitas, an endangered porpoise that lives in only a small section of the upper Gulf of California. My some estimates, there may only be 60 individuals remaining. Continue reading “Conservation groups seek trade sanctions against Mexico in effort to save the endangered vaquita”

Climate: Slower currents during last ice age helped oceans store more carbon

A new study shows how ocean currents play a huge role in the global carbon cycle. @bberwyn photo.
A new study shows how the speed of ocean currents play a huge role in the global carbon cycle. @bberwyn photo.

New study helps explain how carbon flux changes over time

Staff Report

The shells of tiny ocean organisms called foraminifera have once again given climate researchers huge clues about the long-term carbon cycle in the world’s oceans. The information helps show the buildup of heat-trapping greenhouse gases will affect the climate.

A pair of new studies led by University of Cambridge scientists show that cold oceans at the peak of the last ice age about 20,000 years ago, circulated much more slowly, enabling them to store more carbon for longer than modern oceans. Continue reading “Climate: Slower currents during last ice age helped oceans store more carbon”

Bleaching risk on the rise for Great Barrier Reef corals

Global warming is likely to overwhelm corals'
Global warming is likely to overwhelm corals’ built-in thermal tolerance mechanisms within the next few decades, leading to more bleaching and mortality. Photo courtesy Dr. Peter Mumby.

Study identifies bleaching and mortality thresholds for imperiled coral reefs

Staff Report

The steady rise in ocean temperatures projected for the next few decades will put more and more corals at risk of bleaching, as the warm water simply overwhelms their thermal tolerance mechanisms.

Recent research along the Great Barrier Reef shows that corals have been able to survive past bleaching events because they were acclimated to warmer temperatures by being exposed to a pattern of gradually warming waters in the lead up to each episode. But global warming is likely to change that, the scientists said.

Before long, temperature increases of as little as 0.5 degrees Celsius may push many corals over the edge as the warm water causes them to expel the algae-like dinoflagellates that help keep them alive and give them their color.

Lead author Dr. Tracy Ainsworth from Coral CoE said  bleaching is like a marathon for corals.

“When corals are exposed to a pre-stress period in the weeks before bleaching, as temperatures start to climb, this acts like a practice run and prepares the coral. Corals that are exposed to this pattern are then less stressed and more tolerant when bleaching does occur,” Ainsworth said. Continue reading “Bleaching risk on the rise for Great Barrier Reef corals”

Sea star die-off spurred trophic cascade in B.C. coastal waters

Northern rainbow star afflicted with sea star wasting disease. This species had virtually disappeared from central California kelp forests as of February 2014. Photo: Steve Lonhart / NOAA MBNMS
Northern rainbow star afflicted with sea star wasting disease. This species had virtually disappeared from central California kelp forests as of February 2014. Photo: Steve Lonhart / NOAA MBNMS.

Booming sea urchin population takes bite out of ocean kelp forests

Staff Report

Some sea star populations along the Oregon coast may be recovering from a massive wasting epidemic that all but wiped out some species of the echinoderms, but that’s not the case in Howe Sound, a scenic fjord-like sound on the coast of British Columbia.

There, the die-off had a clear ecological trickle-down effect, called a trophic cascade by biologists. After the sea stars died, populations of their favorite prey, green sea urchins, quadrupled. The urchins quickly gobbled up kelp, reducing by 80 percent. Undersea kelp forests are critical to near-shore ocean ecosystems, providing cover and food for many marine species.

The findings were reported by Simon Fraser University marine ecologists Jessica Schultz, Ryan Cloutier and Isabelle Côté, who studied the after-effects of the die-off that hit the area in 2013, described as one of the largest  wildlife mass mortality events ever recorded. Continue reading “Sea star die-off spurred trophic cascade in B.C. coastal waters”

Endangered species status sought for bluefin tuna

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Pacific bluefin tuna are on the brink of extinction, according to conservation groups seeking to list the fish on the endangered species list. Photo courtesy NOAA.

Over-fishing threatens species with extinction

Staff Report

The bluefin tuna population in the Pacific Ocean has dropped so low that a coalition of conservation groups have petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act.

According to the petition, the population has declined more than 97 percent since fishing began, largely because countries have failed to reduce fishing enough to protect the iconic species, a luxury item on sushi menus.

“Without help, we may see the last Pacific bluefin tuna sold off and lost to extinction,” said Catherine Kilduff of the Center for Biological Diversity. “New tagging research has shed light on the mysteries of where majestic bluefin tuna reproduce and migrate, so we can help save this important species. Protecting this incredible fish under the Endangered Species Act is the last hope, because fisheries management has failed to keep them off the path toward extinction.” Continue reading “Endangered species status sought for bluefin tuna”

Feds eye better control of ocean noise pollution

SDF
A draft plan to reduce noise pollution impacts on ocean life is open for public comment. @bberwyn photo.

NOAA releases draft strategy for public comment

Staff Report

With more than enough scientific evidence showing that noise pollution is harming marine life, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration this week said it wants to do more to to try and address those impacts. Citing large increases in underwater noise generated by human activity, the agency posted a draft Ocean Noise Strategy Roadmap for managing noise impacts.

Last fall, a group of leading scientists called for global standards on noise pollution, singling out the impacts of seismic blasting in the quest for oil and gas as being especially harmful. Another scientific article advocated for quiet ocean zones that could serve as sanctuaries and reference areas to learn more about how noise affects marine life. Naval warfare training is another big concern, and federal court recently spelled out how military plans have failed to account for impacts to marine mammals. European scientists have also documented how seismic blasting causes displacement of fin whales more than 150 miles from the source of the noise. Continue reading “Feds eye better control of ocean noise pollution”

Global warming kills a third of Great Barrier Reef’s corals

Similar mortality expected in other tropical oceans

Dead and dying staghorn co ral , central Great Barrier Reef in May 2016. Credit: Johanna  Leonhardt
Dead and dying staghorn coral, central Great Barrier Reef in May 2016. Photo by Johanna Leonhardt.
Great Barrier Reef mortality map
Map of mortality estimates on coral reefs along 1100km of the Great Barrier Reef. Map courtesy ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University.

Staff Report

For years, scientists have warned that global warming threatens to decimate the world’s coral reefs within our lifetimes and this week, the dire warnings played out in Australia, where new surveys showed that more than a third of the corals along the Great Barrier Reef died in the past few months after an extensive coral bleaching episode.

“We found, on average, that 35 percent of the corals are now dead or dying on 84 reefs that we surveyed along the northern and central sections of the Great Barrier Reef, between Townsville and Papua New Guinea,” said Professor Terry Hughes, director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University.

Australian scientists have closely tracked the status of reefs along their coastline for the past few months as it became evident that this year’s strong El Niño would raise ocean temperatures above the limit of what most corals species can survive, and the latest survey results confirm their worst fears. In a press release, the researchers said the impacts are still unfolding along the 2,300-long reef, with the worst damage to the central and northern sections. Continue reading “Global warming kills a third of Great Barrier Reef’s corals”