Tag: groundwater

Will global warming boost groundwater supplies in the Upper Colorado River Basin?

Some climate models project more rainfall in the West

A bend in the Yampa River near Dinosaur National Monument in northwest Colorado.
Will global warming boost flows in Colorado River tributaries? @bberwyn photo.

Staff Report

While most recent research suggests that the Colorado River will be depleted well beyond current demands as global temperatures increase, there may be one small bright spot on the horizon. Even if runoff from snow declines, groundwater replenishment in the basin may hold stead under projected increases in  precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation found in a new study.

“You can’t manage what you don’t measure,” said Fred Tillman, lead author and USGS scientist. “These results are the first step in understanding the quantity of groundwater we can expect in the Upper Colorado River Basin; however, further studies are needed to help more accurately forecast future groundwater availability.”

The Colorado River is a critically important source of water for more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico. As much as half the water flowing in the rivers and streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin originates as groundwater. Understanding how much groundwater is available and how it’s replenished is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future.

In the new study, USGS and Reclamation scientists estimated projected changes in groundwater recharge for the Upper Colorado River Basin from recent historical (1950–2015) through future (2016–2099) time periods using climate projections and a groundwater-recharge model.

Simulated future groundwater recharge through 2099 is generally expected to be somewhat greater than the historical average in most decades due to an anticipated wetter future climate in the basin under the most advanced climate modeling projections. Groundwater resources are replenished through increases in precipitation, which may offset reductions from increased temperatures. The full report is available online in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

But researchers urged caution interpreting the results because a few of the models suggested  decreased future recharge relative to the historical climate period.

Continue reading “Will global warming boost groundwater supplies in the Upper Colorado River Basin?”

Groundwater a huge factor in sustaining Colorado River flows

New study helps resource managers plan for climate change

Evening clouds along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado.
Groundwater is a huge factor in assessing climate change impacts on the Colorado River. @bberwyn photo.
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Resource managers need as much information as possible about Colorado River flows to make sustainable management decisions.

Staff Report

Resource managers grappling with the vexing question of how to allocate Colorado River water to the thirsty cities, ranches and farms of the Southwest have some new food for thought. A new U.S. Geological Survey study published this week in the journal Water Resources Research shows that more than half the streamflow in Upper Colorado River Basin originates as groundwater.

The information is especially important in the context of how climate change — through increased temperatures and evaporation, as well as changing precipitation patterns — will affect the river. One recent study, for example, showed that warmer spring temperatures are reducing flows independently of winter precipitation. In 2014, another study found that groundwater depletion threatens the sustainability of the Colorado River. Continue reading “Groundwater a huge factor in sustaining Colorado River flows”

Feds track record Central Valley groundwater depletion

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California’s Central Valley, as seen from the International Space Station. Photo courtesy NASA Earth Observatory.

‘The Central Valley has many areas where recent groundwater levels are more than 100 feet below previous historical low …’

Staff Report

Farmers in California’s Central Valley pumped more groundwater than ever during the state’s ongoing drought, causing aquifers to drop to new record low levels, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

The agency recently launched a website to help track Central Valley groundwater depletion and land subsidence. A new paper released about the same time shows geographical nuances in the decline. The biggest changes are in the southern Central Valley, where farmers have shifted from planting annual and seasonal crops to perennial plants. Continue reading “Feds track record Central Valley groundwater depletion”

Environment: Report spotlights arsenic pollution

Millions of Americans at risk of exposure

Arsenic
Arsenic pollution is widespread across the U.S.

Staff Report

FRISCO — According to scientists, arsenic in groundwater continues to be a major public health threat across the U.S. As many as 8 million people may be at risk of exposure to the toxic substance, mainly because of the lack of any regulations, homeowner inaction and inadequate mitigation measures.

A new report focusing on arsenic contamination wells also helps explain  the geologic mechanisms causing arsenic contamination and come as other studies show that even low doses of arsenic may reduce IQ in children, in addition to well documented risks of heart disease, cancer and reduced lung function. The reports comprise a special section in the journal Science of the Total Environment. Continue reading “Environment: Report spotlights arsenic pollution”

Climate: Groundwater temps also going up

Runoff in North Tenmile Creek, Summit County Colorado.
Runoff in North Tenmile Creek, Summit County Colorado.

Rise in groundwater temps reflects surface temperature record

Staff Report

FRISCO — Decades of detailed temperature measurements from around the globe show how the thickening blanket of heat-trapping greenhouse gas pollutants is steadily raising surface and water temperatures, but until recently, there hasn’t been a lot of information about ground water. Now, scientists with ETH Zurich say groundwater temperature profiles echo those of the atmosphere, albeit damped and delayed.

For their study, the researchers used uninterrupted long-term temperature measurements of groundwater flows around the cities of Cologne and Karlsruhe, where the operators of the local waterworks have been measuring the temperature of the groundwater for 40 years. Continue reading “Climate: Groundwater temps also going up”

Environment: Pharmaceutical pollutants elude water treatment, make their way into groundwater

This Meadow Creek, a wild, free-flowing stream that starts in the Eagles Nest Wilderness Area and ends up flowing right past our house before its confluence with Dillon Reservoir, where it's wild no more.
How pure is your groundwater?

Iowa stream sampling shows common drugs turning up in well water

Staff Report

FRISCO — Research in a small stream near Des Moines, Iowa shows how pharmaceuticals and other hard-to-remove pollutants from treated municipal wastewater can travel into shallow groundwater following their release to streams.

“Water level measurements obtained during this study clearly show that stream levels drive daily trends in groundwater levels,” said Paul Bradley, lead author of the new U.S. Geological Survey study. Continue reading “Environment: Pharmaceutical pollutants elude water treatment, make their way into groundwater”

Environment: Water depletion accelerating in key aquifers

Regions where the water level has declined in the period 1980-1995 are shown in yellow and red; regions where it has increased are shown in shades of blue. Data from the USGS
Regions where the water level has declined in the period 1980-1995 are shown in yellow and red; regions where it has increased are shown in shades of blue. Via USGS.

Is the U.S. headed for water bankruptcy?

By Summit Voice

FRISCO — With many rivers in the western part of the U.S. already tapped out, the pressure on groundwater resources has been increasing, as shown by new U.S. Geological Survey research documenting accelerating depletion of aquifers around the country.

Groundwater depletion in the U.S. was so extensive between 2000 and 2008 that it accounts for 2 percent of the total observed sea level rise during that period, as the water ends up in the ocean as part of the hydrological cycle rather than remaining locked away underground.

Since 1900, the total amount of water depleted from aquifers was equal to more than twice the volume of water in Lake Erie.

Essentially, the country is frittering away its water savings faster than ever, with no idea how to replace them, or what to do when they’re gone.

Just in the eight years between 2001 and 2008, depletion of the Ogalla Aquifer amounted to 32 percent of the total depletion during the entire 20th century. The annual rate of depletion during this recent period averaged about 10.2 cubic kilometers, roughly 2 percent of the volume of water in Lake Erie. Continue reading “Environment: Water depletion accelerating in key aquifers”