Tag: greenhouse gases

How do ponds fit into the global warming equation?

New study shows warmup will boost methane releases

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Small ponds will speed up climate change as they warm up. @bberwyn photo.

Staff Report

Small ponds could end up having a huge impact on Earth’s climate as they warm up due to heat-trapping greenhouse gas pollution, according to scientists from the University of Exeter and Queen Mary University of London. The researchers experimentally warmed a number small ponds by about 4-5 degrees Celsius over the course of seven years to study the effects of increased temperatures. Continue reading “How do ponds fit into the global warming equation?”

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Can wave power help de-carbonize the world?

Planned test site in Oregon could help answer the question, but will it survive Trump?

A standing wave in the Blue River at peak runoff, July 2011.
Can waves help power the world without carbon? @bberwyn photo.

Staff Report

All eyes are on wind and solar these days, and rightly so, but ocean waves may play an even bigger role in humanity’s efforts to decarbonize energy production. Scientists and engineers in the Pacific Northwest may get a chance to show how that can happen with a new wave energy test facility in Newport, Oregon.

Last month, Oregon State University’s Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center today was awarded up to $40 million from the U.S. Department of Energy for the  Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site, which should be operational by 2020. It will be able to test wave energy “converters” that harness the energy of ocean waves and turn it into electricity. Companies around the world are already anticipating construction of the new facility to test and perfect their technologies, OSU officials say. Continue reading “Can wave power help de-carbonize the world?”

Sea snails showing signs of global warming wear and tear

Study helps quantify ocean acidification impacts

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Scientists estimate that pteropod shell dissolution has increased 20 to 25 percent on average in waters along the U.S. West Coast due to CO2 emitted by humans.

Staff Report

By mapping CO2 emissions and comparing that information with data on CO levels in the ocean, scientists say they can now show to what degree the build-up of heat-trapping pollution contributes to the dissolving of shells of microscopic marine sea snails called pteropods.

Other studies from the Southern Hemisphere have reached similar conclusions. Pteropods are an important food for commercially valuable fish species like salmon, sablefish and rock sole.

“This is the first time we’ve been able to tease out the percentage of human-caused carbon dioxide from natural carbon dioxide along a large portion of the West Coast and link it directly to pteropod shell dissolution,” said Richard Feely, a NOAA senior scientist who led the research. Continue reading “Sea snails showing signs of global warming wear and tear”

Earth’s plants are soaking up more of our CO2 these days

Study suggests carbon uptake by forests has doubled since the 1950s

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Forests have doubled their CO2 uptake since the 1950s, a new study says. @bberwyn photo.

Staff Report

Scientists say they’ve place yet another piece in the complex global plant-carbon cycle, with a new study suggested that atmospheric CO2 levels have plateaued in recent years because forests and grasslands are removing more of the heat-trapping gas. The research was led by a scientist with the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory .

Fossil fuel burning and other human activities continue to emit increasing amounts of carbon, but the study found that, between 2002 and 2014, the rate at which CO2 increased in the atmosphere held steady at about 1.9 parts per million annually. Continue reading “Earth’s plants are soaking up more of our CO2 these days”

Global warming started earlier than you think

New study suggests climate is very sensitive to greenhouse gases

Despite ups and downs from year to year, global average surface temperature is rising. By the beginning of the 21st century, Earth’s temperature was roughly 0.5 degrees Celsius above the long-term (1951–1980) average. (NASA figure adapted from Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
Despite ups and downs from year to year, global average surface temperature is rising. By the beginning of the 21st century, Earth’s temperature was roughly 0.5 degrees Celsius above the long-term (1951–1980) average. (NASA figure adapted from Goddard Institute for Space Studies).

Staff Report

Although the rate of global warming has increased dramatically in the last few decades, a new study suggests that human activities have been driving climate change for the past 180 years. The findings suggest that global warming is not just a  20th century phenomenon, and that the climate system is, indeed, quite sensitive to the buildup of heat-trapping pollution.

The study was led by Nerilie Abram, of  The Australian National University, who  warming began during the early stages of the Industrial Revolution and started leaving a fingerprint in  the Arctic and tropical oceans around the 1830s, much earlier than scientists had expected. Continue reading “Global warming started earlier than you think”

Harley-Davidson to pay $15 million for cheating on clean air rules

Et tu, Harley-Davidson?

Court settlement includes mitigation and buy-back program

Staff Report

Volkswagen isn’t the only company to try and circumvent clean air rules. This week, Harley-Davidson agreed to pay a $12 million civil penalty for installing illegal devices that increase air pollution from their motorcycles.

Under the court-approved settlement, the company also agreed to spend $3 million to mitigate air pollution by replacing older wood stoves with cleaner heating units, and to  stop selling and to buy back and destroy the so-called super-tuners.

According to court documents, Harley-Davidson manufactured and sold about 340,000 of the devices, that, once installed, caused motorcycles to emit higher amounts of certain air pollutants than what the company certified to EPA. Aftermarket defeat devices like these super tuners alter a motor vehicle’s emissions controls and are prohibited under the Clean Air Act for use on vehicles that have been certified to meet EPA emissions standards. Continue reading “Harley-Davidson to pay $15 million for cheating on clean air rules”

Forests may not benefit from rising CO2 levels

Intense aspen and scrub oak color in this aerial view of Eagle County, Colorado.
Aspen and scrub oak forests in western Colorado. @bberwyn photo.

Study says disastrous tipping points could be reached by 2050

Staff Report

Forests of the future may not be able to remove heat-trapping CO2 from the atmosphere as effectively as previously thought, scientists said in a new study that’s based on an extensive analysis of tree ring data from the past.

“We utilized a network of more than two million tree-ring observations spanning North America. Tree-rings provide a record into how trees that grow in different climates respond to changes in temperature and rainfall,” said Brian Enquist, a professor in the UA’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and a fellow of the Aspen Center for Environmental Studies in Aspen, Colorado.

The research challenges assumptions about how forests will respond to warmer average temperatures, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and shifting rainfall patterns. It also suggests that the warming climate already is rapidly pushing many forests towards an ecological tipping point, which may be reached as early as 2050, Exposure to unprecedented temperatures hampers tree growth and makes them susceptible to other stress factors. Continue reading “Forests may not benefit from rising CO2 levels”