Category: Marine biology

Study eyes tourism threat to sustainable fisheries in Caribbean

A spiny lobster in the Florida Keys Marine Sanctuary. Photo courtesy NOAA.
A spiny lobster in the Florida Keys Marine Sanctuary. Photo courtesy NOAA.

Under-reporting of catches documented by nonprofit research group

Staff Report

The marine environment around some Caribbean islands is still threatened by unsustainable fishing, according to a new study that documents the under-reporting of catches in the Turks and Caicos Islands. According to the research, catches on the islands were 86 percent higher than what was reported to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization, a finding with troubling implication for sustainable fisheries efforts.

The research team from the nonprofit Sea Around Us program says urgent policy action is needed to ensure the future sustainability of the fishing industry in this archipelago nation. The findings were published in open-access journal Frontiers in Marine Science. Continue reading “Study eyes tourism threat to sustainable fisheries in Caribbean”

New study documents biodiversity in proposed deep sea mining zone

Researchers call for balance between mining and ecosystem protection

'j
A species of cnidarian in the genus Relicanthus with 8-foot long tentacles attached to a dead sponge stalk on a nodule in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone. These are closely related to anemones. Photo credit: Diva Amon and Craig Smith, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa.

Staff Report

New research shows that proposed mining on the seafloor of the Pacific Ocean would likely have a huge impact on marine biodiversity. A study published in the journal Scientific Reports, documents an “impressive abundance and diversity among the creatures” on the seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone — an area in the equatorial Pacific Ocean being targeted for deep-sea mining.

“We found that this exploration claim area harbors one of the most diverse communities of megafauna (animals over 2 cm in size) to be recorded at abyssal depths in the deep sea,” lead author Diva Amon said in a press release.

The researchers explained that a combination of biological, chemical and geological processes formed a high concentrations of polymetallic “manganese” nodules on the deep seafloor in the CCZ–an area nearly the size of the contiguous United States. These nodules are potentially valuable sources of copper, nickel, cobalt and manganese, among other metals, which has led to an interest in mining this region. Continue reading “New study documents biodiversity in proposed deep sea mining zone”

Conservation groups seek trade sanctions against Mexico in effort to save the endangered vaquita

Continued illegal gill net fishing cited in push for ban on Mexican seafood

vaquita
There may be as few as 60 endangered vaquita remaining in the Gulf of California. Photo courtesy NOAA.

Staff Report

In what could be a last-ditch effort to save imperiled vaquita in the Gulf of California, conservation advocates are urging the Obama administration to launch economic sanctions against Mexico to halt that country’s trade in totoaba. According to the Center for Biological Diversity, the sanctions would be justified because Mexico is violating the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) by not enforcing the ban on totoaba trade.

The June 28 letter to high level U.S. Cabinet officials is the latest step in a long-running an complex struggle to prevent extinction of vaquitas, an endangered porpoise that lives in only a small section of the upper Gulf of California. My some estimates, there may only be 60 individuals remaining. Continue reading “Conservation groups seek trade sanctions against Mexico in effort to save the endangered vaquita”

Sea star die-off spurred trophic cascade in B.C. coastal waters

Northern rainbow star afflicted with sea star wasting disease. This species had virtually disappeared from central California kelp forests as of February 2014. Photo: Steve Lonhart / NOAA MBNMS
Northern rainbow star afflicted with sea star wasting disease. This species had virtually disappeared from central California kelp forests as of February 2014. Photo: Steve Lonhart / NOAA MBNMS.

Booming sea urchin population takes bite out of ocean kelp forests

Staff Report

Some sea star populations along the Oregon coast may be recovering from a massive wasting epidemic that all but wiped out some species of the echinoderms, but that’s not the case in Howe Sound, a scenic fjord-like sound on the coast of British Columbia.

There, the die-off had a clear ecological trickle-down effect, called a trophic cascade by biologists. After the sea stars died, populations of their favorite prey, green sea urchins, quadrupled. The urchins quickly gobbled up kelp, reducing by 80 percent. Undersea kelp forests are critical to near-shore ocean ecosystems, providing cover and food for many marine species.

The findings were reported by Simon Fraser University marine ecologists Jessica Schultz, Ryan Cloutier and Isabelle Côté, who studied the after-effects of the die-off that hit the area in 2013, described as one of the largest  wildlife mass mortality events ever recorded. Continue reading “Sea star die-off spurred trophic cascade in B.C. coastal waters”

Feds eye better control of ocean noise pollution

SDF
A draft plan to reduce noise pollution impacts on ocean life is open for public comment. @bberwyn photo.

NOAA releases draft strategy for public comment

Staff Report

With more than enough scientific evidence showing that noise pollution is harming marine life, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration this week said it wants to do more to to try and address those impacts. Citing large increases in underwater noise generated by human activity, the agency posted a draft Ocean Noise Strategy Roadmap for managing noise impacts.

Last fall, a group of leading scientists called for global standards on noise pollution, singling out the impacts of seismic blasting in the quest for oil and gas as being especially harmful. Another scientific article advocated for quiet ocean zones that could serve as sanctuaries and reference areas to learn more about how noise affects marine life. Naval warfare training is another big concern, and federal court recently spelled out how military plans have failed to account for impacts to marine mammals. European scientists have also documented how seismic blasting causes displacement of fin whales more than 150 miles from the source of the noise. Continue reading “Feds eye better control of ocean noise pollution”

Ocean acidification puts Dungeness crab fishery at risk

Study shows how changing ocean chemistry slows life cycle

Dungeness crab
Ocean acidification will slow the reproductive cycle of Dungeness crabs, according to a new study. Photo courtesy NOAA.

Staff Report

Ocean acidification could take a bite out of the economically important Dungeness crab fishery along the Pacific Northwest coast. As the oceans absorb more CO2 from the atmosphere, the increasingly corrosive water is likely slow development and reduce survival of the crab’s larval stages, according to new research by  the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle.

Ocean acidification is one of the most serious effects of increasing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Based on what we know about emissions trends, the average pH of surface waters off the Pacific Northwest Coast is expected to drop to about 7.8, and even more when periodic upwelling carries deep water to the surface. Acidification has already been found to slow coral growth, impair shark feeding, and speed the spread of invasive species, among other impacts.

The study, recently published in the journal Marine Biology, shows that the crab larvae hatched at the same rate regardless of pH, but those that hatched at lower levels showed signs of slowed development. The researchers suggested that the lower pH may reduce the metabolic rate of embryos. That could extend their vulnerable larval period, or could jeopardize the timing of their development in relation to key food sources, the scientists said. Continue reading “Ocean acidification puts Dungeness crab fishery at risk”

Vaquita population drops to brink of extinction

vaquita4_olsen
Continued poaching is pushing the vaquita toward extinction. Photo courtesy Paula Olsen/NOAA.

New survey results show as few as 60 remaining vaquita porpoises in the Gulf of California

Staff Report

The population of vaquita porpoises in the Gulf of California may be down to just 60 individuals, according to conservation advocates, who released the results of recent surveys in a press release last week.

The vaquita is the world’s smallest and most endangered porpoise and could be extinct in less than a decade without stringent conservation measures, especially a complete and well-enforced ban on gill nets in the northern Gulf of California. The new vaquita population estimate is based on observer data and acoustic monitoring conducted during a joint Mexico-U.S. vaquita research cruise last fall. Continue reading “Vaquita population drops to brink of extinction”