One of the coolest things about mushrooms is that many species are true globalists, which means they grow in many different countries, on many different continents, wherever habitat and moisture are present in the right combination. The fungi in this set were all photographed in the forests of Austria this summer, but all these varieties — either the exact same species or close relatives, — also grow in North America. Check the Summit Voice mushroom archives for more fungi photography, as well as some of the latest stories on mushroom ecology. We’re starting to learn that the delicate relationship between fungi, forests, plants and soil has a huge influence on the global carbon cycle.
Latest survey tallies more than 100 milion dead trees
California’s long-term drought has claimed another 36 million trees, the U.S. Forest Service said this week, announcing the results of a new aerial survey. Since 2010, more than 100 million trees have died across 7.7 million acres, the agency said.
The die-off intensified in 2016, after four years of drought, with mortality increasing 100 percent. Millions of additional trees are weakened and expected to die in the coming months and years. Forest Service leaders once again emphasized that their ability to address safety issues linked with dead trees has been severely hampered by climate change and limited resources.
All mountain ranges have to end somewhere, and for the Alps, the eastern terminus is the Wienerwald, a chain of rolling, low-slung hills on the outskirts of Vienna that drop down to the Danube Basin along a tectonic escarpment marked by a series of hot- and cold-water springs. It’s a geological and biological transition zone, where the rather moist and cool climate of northwestern Europe gives way to the drier regime of the Pannonian Basin to the southeast, including the Hungarian Puszta. Continue reading “Sunday set: Wienerwald”→
New satellite data helps track photosynthesis in evergreens
Despite the huge importance of forests in the global carbon cycle, researchers still aren’t exactly certain how they will respond to climate change. But that could soon change thanks to satellite sensors that can track photosynthesis in evergreen forests by monitoring slight color shifts.
The new information could help assess the health of northern forests over time, showing how they are responding to global warming. Photosynthesis is easy to track in deciduous trees — when leaves bud or turn yellow and fall off. But until recently, it had been impossible to detect in evergreen conifers on a large scale. Continue reading “How will boreal forests respond to global warming?”→
Study eyes forest ecosystem tipping points that can drive climate change
Tropical forests are the Earth’s lungs, helping drive global respiration and transpiration – key steps in the climate cycle. That’s been the case for millennia, according to a University of California, Davis-led study that tracked atmospheric CO2 levels from 330 to 260 million years ago by examining fossilized leaves and soil-formed minerals.
The last time Earth experienced both ice sheets and carbon dioxide levels within the range predicted for this century was a period of major sea level rise, melting ice sheets and upheaval of tropical forests, where dramatically dynamic forest regeneration cycles were a big factor in driving the climate between warmer and cooler phases. Continue reading “The lungs of the Earth”→
Danube Pano from Aggstein Castle looking across at Willendorf.
Most travelers have heard of the Wachau region. The fertile hillsides along the Danube River have long been designated as a World Heritage region for its cultural and natural landscapes. But just across the river is another slice of forest, the Dunkelsteinerwald, that’s not quite as famous but just as beautiful. On a mid-October weekend, we hiked from the pilgrimage town of Maria Langegg up the restored Aggstein Castle, which was built in the 12th century. Like many others along the Danube, the castle was an outpost for charging toll to passing ships, a payment made in exchange for maintaining the paths along the shore that were used to tow ships upstream. But the area was inhabited long before that, with signs of civilization dating back to the Celtic era — and long before. Just across the river, construction workers in 1908 unearthed the famed Venus of Willendorf, a prehistoric fertility figurine dating back to about 25,000 BC.
Congress may not be able to get it together to deal with issues like crumbling infrastructure or deadly opiate epidemics, but when it comes to trying to strip Americans of their unique public lands heritage, there’s no shortage of legislation.
The Center for Biological Diversity is warming there are four bills pending in the House and Senate natural resource committees that could affect public lands — and not in a good way. One of the measures would block the creation of new national monuments and parks, while others could enable the transfer of federally managed public lands to state governments. Continue reading “Somebody is trying to take away your public lands”→