Researchers call for balance between mining and ecosystem protection
New research shows that proposed mining on the seafloor of the Pacific Ocean would likely have a huge impact on marine biodiversity. A study published in the journal Scientific Reports, documents an “impressive abundance and diversity among the creatures” on the seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone — an area in the equatorial Pacific Ocean being targeted for deep-sea mining.
“We found that this exploration claim area harbors one of the most diverse communities of megafauna (animals over 2 cm in size) to be recorded at abyssal depths in the deep sea,” lead author Diva Amon said in a press release.
The researchers explained that a combination of biological, chemical and geological processes formed a high concentrations of polymetallic “manganese” nodules on the deep seafloor in the CCZ–an area nearly the size of the contiguous United States. These nodules are potentially valuable sources of copper, nickel, cobalt and manganese, among other metals, which has led to an interest in mining this region. Continue reading “New study documents biodiversity in proposed deep sea mining zone”→
Migration changes could affect competition for nesting sites
As global warming speeds up the springtime northward migration of swallows, it could spell trouble for mountain bluebirds.
Both species are cavity nesters; at times they compete for the same habitat. Historically, mountain bluebirds have arrived in the breeding territories earlier than the swallows, giving them a chance to defend their nests. But if the swallows arrive first, the bluebirds may have a harder time finding a safe spot to lay eggs, according to new research published in The Auk: Ornithological Advances.
The scientists from the University of Saskatchewan acknowledged that the outcomes of interspecies battles for nest sites depend on a number of factors, but wanted to study what happens when tree swallows and mountain bluebirds compete for nest sites. So they set up side-by-side pairs of nest boxes in grassland habitat in central British Columbia.
When bluebird and swallow pairs moved in next door to each other, they would either block the entrance to one box and let the two pairs of birds compete for the one that remained, or remove both boxes and replace them with a fresh one.
“I became interested in this topic after watching many competitive interactions over natural tree holes during a long-term study of Northern Flickers in central British Columbia,” said researchers Karen Wiebe. “In early spring when the birds are trying to claim a nest site, these disputes can be intense and really grab your attention. Because bluebirds and swallows readily use nest boxes, I was motivated to try some experiments in a system where I could have more control over the spacing of nests and settlement patterns of the birds.”
Wiebe found that when Tree Swallows were defending their previously owned box or when the two species were competing over a new box, Tree Swallows won 65-70 percent of the time. Bluebirds got a boost when they defended a box they already occupied, however, fending off swallows 77 percent of the time.
Climate change may bring the two species into direct competition more often and reduce bluebirds’ ability to claim and defend nest sites.
“This is a nice set of clever and simple experiments that show that species are not the same when it comes to the importance of being the first one to occupy a nest site,” according to ecologist Hanna Kokko of the University of Zurich, an expert on interspecies competition in birds. “The one that currently tends to arrive first, the bluebird, relies more on this, which could easily cause problems if the arrival order changes on a changing planet.”
Many bird species could lose between 78 and 85 percent of their existing habitat
Birds and reptiles in the Southwest that live in fragmented habitat will be hit hardest by global warming in the decades ahead, according to a new study by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Northern Arizona University.
The researchers took a close look at about 30 different animals, including well-known species such as the Gila monster, horned lizard, chuckwalla, Sonoran desert tortoise, pinyon jay, pygmy nuthatch, sage thrasher and black-throated sparrow.
British Antarctic Survey scientists to monitor impacts of ash deposits
A volcanic eruption in the remote South Sandwich archipelago, near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, may threaten the largest known colony of chinstrap penguins, according to scientists with the British Antarctic Survey who have been monitoring the eruption.
The Mt. Curry volcano on Zavodovski Island has been erupting since March, sending ash toward the penguin enclave. The uninhabited island is part of the British Overseas Territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. After reports of a 7.2 magnitude earthquake last month, researchers confirmed from satellite imagery that not one, but two volcanoes are erupting in the South Sandwich Islands — Mt. Curry on Zavodovski Island to the north of the archipelago and Mt. Sourabaya on Bristol Island to the south. Continue reading “Eruption poses threat to huge penguin colony”→
Continued illegal gill net fishing cited in push for ban on Mexican seafood
In what could be a last-ditch effort to save imperiled vaquita in the Gulf of California, conservation advocates are urging the Obama administration to launch economic sanctions against Mexico to halt that country’s trade in totoaba. According to the Center for Biological Diversity, the sanctions would be justified because Mexico is violating the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) by not enforcing the ban on totoaba trade.
Global warming will irrevocably alter the face of the Earth
Rocky Mountain National Park Pano, mid-summer.
Der Ötscher (1,893M), the easternmost outpost of the Alps in Lower Austria.
Thick ice surrounds a jagged mountain range in south-central Greenland.
A popular local swimming hole along the Danube River in the town of Greifenstein, near Vienna.
An arch iceberg in the Antarctic Sound.
The more I report on climate change and the environment, the more I learn to cherish the landscapes that I see, because it’s really starting to sink in that humankind, during this Anthropocene Age, is fundamentally changing Earth’s ecosystems, altering the climate and impacting the landscape on levels seem almost inconceivable.