Year-to-date still on record-breaking pace
The average global temperature for October 2016 was 1.31 degrees Fahrenheit above the 20th century average, putting the month in a tie with 2003 for the third-warmest October on record.
Including 2016, the past three Octobers have been the three warmest in the historical record, but with the globe cooling down slightly from an El Niño heat surge, the monthly anomaly was the lowest deparature from average since Nov. 2014, according to the latest global monthly state of the climate report from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information.
Climate trackers reported record warmth from parts of Mexico and the Caribbean, west central Africa, sections of southeastern Asia, and western Alaska to Far East Russia, where temperatures were more 9 degrees Fahrenheit above average.
Cooler- and much-cooler-than-average conditions were observed much of western Canada, most of eastern Europe, and a large swath extending across much of central Asia, where temperatures were up to 9 degrees Fahrenheit below average. No land areas experienced record cold temperatures during October 2016.
According to NCEI’s Global Regional analysis, Africa as a whole observed its second warmest October on record, behind only 2015, while North America had its seventh warmest.
Parts of Greenland, including the eastern coast and Camp Summit, were record warm in October, with several stations reporting new monthly high temperatures. Among the largest departures, Daneborg was 13.3 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than its 1981–2010 average with a record dating to 1958, while Summit, at the top of the Greenland ice 13.1 degrees Fahrenheit above average, with records going back to 1991.
Even though the Pacific Ocean shifted to a cool La Niña phase during October, most of the world’s oceans saw warmer- to much-warmer-than-average temperatures during the month. Record warmth areas included parts of the southern and western Pacific, the Caribbean Sea, small areas of the Southern Ocean, a vertical swath of the western Atlantic extending south from the northeastern United States, and parts of the Arctic Seas.
Cooler- and much-cooler-than-average conditions were limited to the Indian Ocean waters off southwestern Australia, part of the north central Atlantic, and small areas of the central and South Pacific.
For the year to-date, Earth is still on track for its third consecutive record-warm year, at 1.75 degrees Fahrenheit above average for January through October. That puts it 0.18 degrees ahead of last year.
Both land and sea surface temperatures are on record pace in 2016. Land-surface temperatures are 2.66 degrees Fahrenheit above average for the year. No land areas were cooler than average for the year-to-date. According to NCEI’s Global Regional analysis, all six continents had at least a top three warm January–October period, with North America and Asia each experiencing a record high average temperature for that period since continental records began in 1910.
Info compiled from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for October 2016: from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201610.