About these ads

Do small volcanoes have a big climate impact?

asdf

New research may help explain the overall effect of volcanoes on global climate. Photo courtesy USGS.

New research tracks aerosols from volcanic eruptions

Staff Report

FRISCO — Sunlight-reflecting particles from relatively small volcanic eruptions may add up to have a significant effect on global temperatures, according to a new climate study that tries to quantify the cumulative impact of aerosols from volcanoes.

According to the research, based on a combination of measurements taken on the ground, in the air and from satellites, small volcanic eruptions that occurred between 2000 and 2013 deflected almost double the amount of solar radiation previously estimated.

That’s enough to lower global temperatures by about  0.05 to 0.12 degrees Celsius, the scientists concluded in their study, which appears in Geophysical Research Letters. Continue reading

About these ads

Huge volcanic eruptions can lead to fast climate change

Will the world get it together on climate change?

Researchers are getting a better handle on what might have caused the Permian extinction. Photo courtesy NASA.

Acid rain, ozone depletion contributed to ancient mass extinction

By Summit Voice

FRISCO — While the steady increase in greenhouse gas concentrations may be a slow form of ecocide, massive volcanic eruptions may have the ability to alter the atmosphere so profoundly that it leads to relatively sudden and widespread mass extinctions.

That’s likely what happened 250 million years ago, at the end of the Permian period, when there was a mass extinction so severe that it remains the most traumatic known species die-off in Earth’s history. Previous research has suggested the event was triggered by contemporaneous volcanic eruptions in Siberia, and a recent followup study looked at the effects those eruptions had on Earth’s atmosphere. Continue reading

New map details Iceland glaciers, sub-glacial volcanoes

New map provides valuable information the global warming era

sdg

Iceland’s glaciers are an important source of water for hydropower generation.

By Summit Voice

FRISCO — A team effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Icelandic Meteorological Office has resulted in a new map detailing all of Iceland’s glaciers, as well as subglacial volcanoes. The map incorporates historical data and coverage from aerial photographs and remote sensing satellites, helping to show recent and historic changes in Iceland’s dynamic landscape.

Iceland has about 300 glaciers throughout the country, and altogether, 269 glaciers, outlet glaciers and internal ice caps are named. The glaciers that lack names are small and largely newly revealed, exposed by melting of snow pack due to warmer summer temperatures. The number of identified glaciers has nearly doubled at the beginning of the 21st century. Continue reading

Climate: Tracking atmospheric aerosols

New satellite data shows volcanoes are a bigger factor than industrial emissions, at least high in the atmosphere

Alaska's Redoubt Volcano erupting in 1990. Photo courtesy USGS/R.J. Clucas.

Alaska’s Redoubt Volcano erupting in 1990. Photo courtesy USGS/R.J. Clucas.

By Summit Voice

FRISCO — Scientists have long known that aerosols can have a major effect on climate, and with measurements from sensitive satellite-based instruments, they’re getting a better handle on the formation, distribution and sources of various sulfur compounds in the atmosphere.

In a new study, researchers with the Karslruhe Institute of Technology say they’ve compiled one of the most comprehensive overview of sulfur dioxide measurements.

“Sulfur compounds up to 30 km altitude may have a cooling effect,” said KIT researcher Michael Höpfner, explaining that sulfur dioxide and water vapor react to sulfuric acid that forms aerosols, that reflect solar radiation back into universe. Continue reading

Study: Volcanic eruptions offset small part of greenhouse gas-driven global warming during the past 10 years

Researchers gaining a better understanding of stratospheric aerosols

Photo courtesy U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Photo courtesy U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

By Bob Berwyn

FRISCO —A series of small to mid-sized volcanic eruptions the past 10 years were the main factor in the formation of stratospheric sulfuric acid that reflected the sun’s energy and partially offset the effects of heat-trapping greenhouse gases.

“This new study indicates it is emissions from small to moderate volcanoes that have been slowing the warming of the planet,” said Ryan Neely, a researcher at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science and doctoral student at CU Boulder.

Neely said previous observations suggest that increases in stratospheric aerosols since 2000 have counterbalanced as much as 25 percent of the warming scientists blame on human greenhouse gas emissions. Continue reading

Volcanic pumice may have key role in coral reef ecosystems

Floating rafts of pumice attract all sorts of marine life as they float across the South Pacific.

New study suggests floating rafts of pumice could help replenish reefs

By Summit Voice

SUMMIT COUNTY — Pumice from volcanic explosions may play a previously unknown role in the formation of coral reefs, according to researchers with the Queensland University of Technology in Australia.

Dr. Scott Bryan, a geologist at the university, led a recent study of westward flowing rafts of pumice after volcanic eruptions in Tonga in 2001 and 2006, finding that plants and tiny animals — including corals — latched onto pumice as it was swept by ocean currents towards north eastern Australia.

“The pumice raft created after the 2006 Home Reef volcano erupted in Tonga initially formed at least a 440-square-kilometer floating mass,” Bryan said. “This mass slowly broke up into streaks and millions to billions of marine organisms such as cyanobacteria, barnacles, molluscs, corals, anemones, and crabs began hitching a ride.” Continue reading

Climate: smaller volcanoes found to affect upper atmosphere

A NASA satellite captures a view of the smoke billowing from the Nabro Volcano in Ethiopia during a June 2011 eruption.

New study to help inform climate models

By Summit Voice

SUMMIT COUNTY — Using data from sensitive satellite instruments, researchers at the University of Saskatchewan have determined relatively small volcanic eruptions can affect climate on a global level, as aerosols from the eruptions are transported into the upper levels of the atmosphere by weather systems like monsoons.

“If an aerosol is in the lower atmosphere, it’s affected by the weather and it precipitates back down right away,” said Adam Bourass, with university of Saskatchewan’s Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies. “Once it reaches the stratosphere, it can persist for years, and with that kind of a sustained lifetime, it can really have a lasting effect,” Bourass said, explaining that the particles scatter incoming sunlight, thus cooling the Earth’s surface. Continue reading

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 7,762 other followers