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Study: There’s huge potential for increased food production on existing land

The recent wheat crisis in Russia is a warning sign for potential large-scale global warming impacts. PHOTO COURTESY THE WIKIMEIDA COMMONS.

The recent wheat crisis in Russia is a warning sign for potential large-scale global warming impacts. PHOTO COURTESY THE WIKIMEIDA COMMONS.

Tweaking farm practices could also reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with agriculture

FRISCO — A systematic University of Minnesota study of global agricultural resources suggest that improving food systems in a few specific regions could make it possible to both meet the basic needs of 3 billion more people and decrease agriculture’s environmental footprint.

The report, published in Science, focuses on 17 key crops that produce 86 percent of the world’s crop calories and account for most irrigation and fertilizer consumption on a global scale. It proposes a set of key actions in three broad areas that that have the greatest potential for reducing the adverse environmental impacts of agriculture and boosting our ability meet global food needs. Continue reading

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Climate: Greenhouse gases drive Australia drying trend

Since the 1970s, southern Australia has been experiencing declining rainfall in the fall and winter, creating scenes like this one in a 2007 photograph at Lake Hume. (Creative Commons/ Suburbanbloke)

Since the 1970s, southern Australia has been experiencing declining rainfall in the fall and winter, creating scenes like this one in a 2007 photograph at Lake Hume. (Creative Commons/ Suburbanbloke).

New model can resolve some climate impacts on a regional scale

STAFF REPORT

FRISCO — Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion over Antarctica are the main drivers of the long-term decline in rainfall over southwestern Australia, federal scientists said in a weekend press release.

The findings, published in Nature Geoscience, are derived from a new  high-resolution climate model that may help researchers identify more links between heat-trapping gases and regional climate trends, including here in the U.S. Continue reading

Environment: Study shows space-based sensors can accurately measure greenhouse gases and other air pollution

The Four Corners Power Plant in a 1972 photo via Wikipedia.

The Four Corners Power Plant in a 1972 photo via Wikipedia.

Satellite data verified by in-stack measurements

By Summit Voice

FRISCO — Keeping tabs colorless, odorless carbon dioxide emissions is not always easy, yet it will be crucial someday for being able to measure whether countries are meeting targets for emissions reductions.

Scientists with Los Alamos National Laboratory now say they’ve been able to measure air pollution and greenhouse gases from the two coal-fired power plants in the Four Corners — the largest single point source of pollution in the U.S. Continue reading

Will ozone pollution spike with global warming?

A computer-generated split-screen image a split-image simulates the average 20 percent best (left) and 20 percent worst 20 percent (right) visibility at the Long’s Peak vista based on an average of monitored data for years 2000-2004.

A computer-generated split-screen image a split-image simulates the average 20 percent best (left) and 20 percent worst 20 percent (right) visibility at the Long’s Peak vista based on an average of monitored data for years 2000-2004.

Very likely without cuts in pollutants, study says

Staff Report

FRISCO — By 2050, many Americans will see their chances of experiencing unhealthy summertime ozone levels increase by 70 percent, according to scientists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Warmer temperatures will make the toxic brew of air pollutants even more volatile unless emissions of specific pollutants that are associated with the formation of ozone are sharply cut, the researchers said in a new study published this week.

Almost all of the continental United States will experience at least a few days with unhealthy air during the summers, the research shows. Heavily polluted locations in parts of the East, Midwest, and West Coast where ozone already frequently exceeds recommended levels could face unhealthy air during most of the summer. Continue reading

Climate: BLM eyes plan to cut methane emissions

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The Earth’s atmosphere can’t take a lot more methane.

Possible new rule would target methane from existing mining operations

By Summit Voice

FRISCO — While federal efforts to cut carbon dioxide emissions are still up in the air due to political and legal uncertainty, the Bureau of Land Management is taking public on a possible new rule to tackle heat-trapping methane from coal mining operations. In a prepared statement announcing the outreach effort, BLM officials said that reducing methane emissions is a powerful way to take action on climate change.

“We welcome public input on ways in which we can both increase mine safety and improve the health of our environment,” said BLM Director Neil Kornze. “We will work with federal, state and local officials as well as with industry and nongovernmental organizations to explore ways to responsibly reduce methane emissions,”

Continue reading

Mediterranean fossils offer new climate clues

Findings shed new light in links between temperatures, CO2 and glaciation

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How will Antarctic ice sheets and glaciers respond to global warming? bberwyn photo.

Staff Report

FRISCO — The relationship between global temperatures and the massive glaciation of historic ice ages may be a bit more complex than previously believed.

By studying the chemical composition of Mediterranean Sea fossils as old as 5.3 million years, scientists found a new way to assess sea-level changes and deep-sea temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years. The findings will result in a better understanding of ice age climate, and could offer new insight into the relationship between carbon dioxide levels, global temperatures and sea levels. Continue reading

Climate: ‘We need to move away from business as usual’

Curbing global warming will require big cuts in greenhouse gases

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March 2014 temperatures were above average across most of the globe.

By Summit Voice

FRISCO —Greenhouse gas emissions continue to climb despite international attempts to curb heat-trapping gases, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its latest climate report.

Issued Sunday in Berlin, the report shows that greenhouse gas emissions grew more quickly between 2000 and 2010 than in each of the three previous decades. Only with significant institutional, social and technological changes will humankind be able to meet its stated target of limiting warming to two degrees Celsius, the scientists wrote. Continue reading

Study: Little chance that global warming is natural

Statistical analysis of temperature data affirms climate models

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Warmer than average temperatures prevailed across most of the globe in March 2014.

Staff Report

FRISCO — A new statistical analysis of temperature records dating back to 1500 suggests it’s more than 99 percent certain that the past century of global warming is caused by the emission of heat-trapping, industrial-age greenhouse gases. The study was published online April 6 in the journal Climate Dynamics.

In a press release, the McGill University researchers said the study doesn’t use complex computer models to estimate the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions. Instead, it examines historical data to assess the competing hypothesis that warming over the past century is due to natural long-term variations in temperature. The results all but rule out  the possibility that global warming in the industrial era is just a natural fluctuation in the earth’s climate. Continue reading

Study: CO2 buildup could affect food quality

Wheat field in Upper Austria

A wheat field in Upper Austria ripens under a summer sun. bberwyn photo.

Protein levels in key grains could decline by 3 percent

Staff Report

FRISCO — Along with cutting yields of some key crops, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is also expected to affect the nutritional quality of food crops. Field tests by UC Davis scientists show that elevated levels of carbon dioxide make it harder for some plants to convert nitrogen into proteins.

“Food quality is declining under the rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide that we are experiencing,” said lead author Arnold Bloom, a professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at UC Davis. “Several explanations for this decline have been put forward, but this is the first study to demonstrate that elevated carbon dioxide inhibits the conversion of nitrate into protein in a field-grown crop,” Bloom said. Continue reading

Climate: Methane emissions from freshwater ecosystem set to soar as Earth warms

New study assesses freshwater methane on a global scale

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Microorganisms in freshwater ecosystems generate significant amounts of methane.

Staff Report

FRISCO — After recalculating Earth’s greenhouse gas budget, Princeton scientists say that methane emissions will start increasing at a faster pace than carbon dioxide, primarily due to the release of methane from microscopic freshwater organisms.

Methane is about 30 times more effective than CO2 at trapping the sun’s heat, and for every degree of warming, methane emissions will increase several times over, according to the research published in Nature.

Continue reading

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