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Global warming: Oceans at all-time record high temps

Pacific Ocean is cooking, even without El Niño

NOAA Sea Surface Temperature anomaly (with respect to period 1854-2013) averaged over global oceans (red) and over North Pacific (0-60oN, 110oE-100oW) (cyan). September 2014 temperatures broke the record for both global and North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures. b) Sea Surface Temperature anomaly of September 2014 from NOAA's ERSST dataset. Credit: Axel Timmermann

NOAA Sea Surface Temperature anomaly (with respect to period 1854-2013) averaged over global oceans (red) and over North Pacific (0-60oN, 110oE-100oW) (cyan). September 2014 temperatures broke the record for both global and North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures. b) Sea Surface Temperature anomaly of September 2014 from NOAA’s ERSST dataset.
Credit: Axel Timmermann.

Staff Report

FRISCO — Global ocean temperatures have soared to the highest level in recorded history this year, and the rate of warming has accelerated since April, according to scientists with the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

“This summer has seen the highest global mean sea surface temperatures ever recorded since their systematic measuring started,” said Axel Timmermann, a climate scientist at the university’s International Pacific Research Center. “Temperatures even exceed those of the record-breaking 1998 El Niño year,” Timmermann said, adding that the new data analysis shows that the global warming pause, if there was one, is over.

“The 2014 global ocean warming is mostly due to the North Pacific, which has warmed far beyond any recorded value,” he said, adding that the temperature trend in the Pacific has shifted hurricane tracks, weakened trade winds, and bleached corals around the Hawaiian Islands. Continue reading

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Climate: 4th-warmest October on record for U.S.

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East-west split not as dramatic in autumn

Staff Report

FRISCO — October 2014 ended up as the fourth-warmest on record, at 3 degrees Fahrenheit above the long-term average, federal weather watchers said today in the monthly climate update from the National Climatic Data Center.

Autumn continued showing the persistent east-west split that is part of an ongoing drought pattern in the Far West. From Texas and Oklahoma to California, most states reported average October temperatures running near record levels, along with a slice of New England. Average temps reigned across the Midwest, with another belt of warmer-than-average readings in the Southeast. Continue reading

Climate: Groundwater temps also going up

Runoff in North Tenmile Creek, Summit County Colorado.

Runoff in North Tenmile Creek, Summit County Colorado.

Rise in groundwater temps reflects surface temperature record

Staff Report

FRISCO — Decades of detailed temperature measurements from around the globe show how the thickening blanket of heat-trapping greenhouse gas pollutants is steadily raising surface and water temperatures, but until recently, there hasn’t been a lot of information about ground water. Now, scientists with ETH Zurich say groundwater temperature profiles echo those of the atmosphere, albeit damped and delayed.

For their study, the researchers used uninterrupted long-term temperature measurements of groundwater flows around the cities of Cologne and Karlsruhe, where the operators of the local waterworks have been measuring the temperature of the groundwater for 40 years. Continue reading

Climate: Robotic gliders probe secrets of Southern Ocean

Detailed measurements to help pinpoint rate of ice shelf melt

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Melting Antarctica ice shelves are raising global sea level. bberwyn photo.

Staff Report

FRISCO — The Southern Ocean, surrounding Antarctica, is mostly separated from the rest of the world’s oceans by a sharp temperature boundary and swift currents. But the border between the different masses of water is regularly blurred by giant swirls of water that may be transporting warmer water to the edge of the frozen continent.

Knowing how that process works could help scientists understand how fast Antarctic ice shelves will melt and raise global sea level, according to Caltech scientists who used robotic gliders to track the movement of water in the region. Continue reading

New maps detail ocean acidification patterns

n northern winter, the Bering Sea, dividing Alaska and Siberia, becomes the most acidic region on earth (in purple) as shown in this February 2005 acidity map in pH scale. Temperate oceans are less acidic. The equatorial Pacific is left blank due to its high variability around El Niño and La Niña events. (Takahashi

During the northern hemisphere winter, the Bering Sea, dividing Alaska and Siberia, becomes the most acidic region on earth (in purple) as shown in this February 2005 acidity map in pH scale. Temperate oceans are less acidic. The equatorial Pacific is left blank due to its high variability around El Niño and La Niña events. Map courtesy Taro Takahashi.

New benchmark data will help track future changes

Staff Report

FRISCO — The world’s oceans are acidifying at a rate of about 5 percent each decade, a trend that could cost the global economy $3 trillion a year in lost revenue from fishing, tourism and other intangible lost ecosystem services.

At that pace, warm-water corals by the end of the century could be living in waters 25 percent more acidic than they are today, raising questions about the long-term survival of coral reef ecosystems.

To paint a more detailed picture of potential impacts, scientists have created an ocean acidification map, showing how how acidity levels vary across the world’s oceans. The data should help provide a benchmark for the future, as enormous amounts CO2 from fossil fuels ends up in the sea. Continue reading

Climate: Rising greenhouse gases will drive surge of pollen production, allergen exposure

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A new study projects a big spike in pollen production as atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase.

‘The implications of increasing CO2 for human health are clear’

Staff Report

FRISCO — Those sniffly, sneezy summer days are about to get a lot worse for allergy sufferers. Some types of grass pollen and exposure to allergens could increase by more than 200 percent in the next 100 years, due to predicted rises in carbon dioxide and ozone, according to University of Massachusetts Amherst scientists, who project a significant, worldwide impact on human health.

In their study of Timothy grass, environmental health researchers tried to determinedthe interactive effects of CO2 and ozone at projected higher levels on pollen production and concentrations of a Timothy grass pollen protein that is a major human allergen. The findings are reported in the current issue of PLOS ONE. Continue reading

Climate: Ozone problems ahead?

Ozone damage on the leaf of a cutleaf coneflower manifests in the form of black stipules. Photo courtesy RMNP.

Ozone damage on the leaf of a cutleaf coneflower manifests in the form of black stipules. Photo courtesy RMNP.

New study projects mid-century air quality under various global warming scenarios

Staff Report

FRISCO — Even with ongoing efforts to improve air quality, global warming could drive ozone levels high enough to cause widespread damage to plants by mid-century, according to a new study that focused on the U.S. but also considered global air quality.

“Modelling future air quality is very complex, because so many factors need to be taken into account at both a global and local scale,” said Dr. Val Martin, of the University of Sheffield’s Faculty of Engineering. Continue reading

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