New report recommends bolstering natural defenses, better long-range planning for coastal communities
By Summit Voice
SUMMIT COUNTY — Along with obvious threats like flooding, rising sea level is likely to affect the U.S. in more unexpected ways, including a decline in seafood quality and shifts in disease patterns, according to a new technical report released this week by the U.S. Geological Survey and NOAA.
The report emphasizes the need for increased coordination and planning to ensure U.S. coastal communities are resilient against the effects of climate change. Sea level rise and increases in extreme weather threaten the the sustainability of many existing coastal communities and natural resources, according to USGS researcher Virginia Burkett.
“An increase in the intensity of extreme weather events such as storms like Sandy and Katrina, coupled with sea-level rise and the effects of increased human development along the coasts, could affect the sustainability of many existing coastal communities and natural resources,” said Virginia Burkett of the U.S. Geological Survey and co-lead author of the report.
“Sandy showed us that coastal states and communities need effective strategies, tools and resources to conserve, protect, and restore coastal habitats and economies at risk from current environmental stresses and a changing climate,” said Margaret A. Davidson of NOAA’s Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management and co-lead author of the report. “Easing the existing pressures on coastal environments to improve their resiliency is an essential method of coping with the adverse effects of climate change.”
All U.S. coasts are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise, erosion, storms and flooding, especially in the more populated low-lying parts of the U.S. coast along the Gulf of Mexico, Mid-Atlantic, northern Alaska, Hawaii, and island territories.
Download the full report here: Coastal Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerabilities: a technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment.
The report emphasized that storm surge flooding and sea-level rise pose significant threats to public and private infrastructure that provides energy, sewage treatment, clean water and transportation of people and goods. These factors increase threats to public health, safety, and employment in the coastal zone.
Sea level rise impacts are crucial because about half the nation’s population lives in coastal watershed counties, contributing more than $8.3 trillion to the 2011 U.S. economy. Those communities depend on healthy coastal landforms, water resources, estuaries and other natural resources to sustain them.
Climate changes, combined with human development activities, reduce the ability of coasts to provide numerous benefits, including food, clean water, jobs, recreation and protection of communities against storms, the report concludes.
Seventy-nine federal, academic and other scientists, including the lead authors from the NOAA and USGS, authored the report which is being used as a technical input to the third National Climate Assessment — an interagency report produced for Congress once every four years to summarize the science and impacts of climate change on the United States.
Other key findings of the report include:
- Expected public health impacts include a decline in seafood quality, shifts in disease patterns and increases in rates of heat-related morbidity.
- Changes in the location and the time of year when storms form can lead to large changes in where storms land and the impacts of storms. Any sea-level rise is virtually certain to exacerbate storm-surge and flooding related hazards.
- Because of changes in the hydrological cycle due to warming, precipitation events (rain, snow) will likely be heavier. Combined with sea-level rise and storm surge, this will increase flooding severity in some coastal areas, particularly in the Northeast.
- Temperature is primarily driving environmental change in the Alaskan coastal zone. Sea ice and permafrost make northern regions particularly susceptible to temperature change. For example, an increase of two degrees Celsius during the summer could basically transform much of Alaska from frozen to unfrozen, with extensive implications.
- As the physical environment changes, the range of a particular ecosystem will expand, contract or migrate in response. The combined influence of many stresses can cause unexpected ecological changes if species, populations or ecosystems are pushed beyond a tipping point.
- Although adaptation planning activities in the coastal zone are increasing, they generally occur in an ad-hoc manner and are slow to be implemented. Efficiency of adaptation can be improved through more accurate and timely scientific information, tools, and resources, and by integrating adaptation plans into overall land use planning as well as ocean and coastal management.
- An integrated scientific program will reduce uncertainty about the best ways coastal communities can to respond to sea-level rise and other kinds of coastal change. This, in turn, will allow communities to better assess their vulnerability and to identify and implement appropriate adaptation and preparedness options.
- Climate: ‘Today’s flood is tomorrow’s high tide … ‘ (summitcountyvoice.com)
- NOAA sees sea level rise of up to 6.6 feet by 2100 (usatoday.com)
- Global warming likely to result in net loss of biodiversity (summitcountyvoice.com)
- Global warming threatens rare Hawaiian flower (summitcountyvoice.com)
- Federal draft climate assessment bodes ill for Southwest (summitcountyvoice.com)