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Global warming: Is CO2 driving fish crazy?

Clownfish. PHOTO COURTESY NICK HOBGOOD, VIA THE CREATIVE COMMONS.

Researchers detect neural damage from dissolved carbon dioxide in the ocean

By Summit Voice

SUMMIT COUNTY — Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the ocean may cause neural damage in fish, interfering with their ability to smell and participate in synchronized schooling maneuvers that make them less vulnerable to predators.

Along with documenting the way the fish reacted to higher CO2 levels, biologists were able to show that dissolved CO2 is directly damaging the fishes’ nervous systems.

“For several years our team have been testing the performance of baby coral fishes in sea water containing higher levels of dissolved CO2 – and it is now pretty clear that they sustain significant disruption to their central nervous system, which is likely to impair their chances of survival,” said professor Philip Munday, of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and James Cook University.

Based on the current rate of greenhouse gas emissions, oceans could see those damaging levels of CO2 by the end of this century, Munday said.

“We’ve found that elevated CO2 in the oceans can directly interfere with fish neurotransmitter functions, which poses a direct and previously unknown threat to sea life,” Munday said.

The researchers started by studying how baby clown and damsel fishes performed alongside their predators in CO2-enriched water. They found that, while the predators were somewhat affected, the baby fish suffered much higher rates of attrition.

“Our early work showed that the sense of smell of baby fish was harmed by higher CO2 in the water – meaning they found it harder to locate a reef to settle on or detect the warning smell of a predator fish. But we suspected there was much more to it than the loss of ability to smell.”

The team then examined whether fishes’ sense of hearing — used to locate and home in on reefs at night, and avoid them during the day — was affected. “The answer is, yes it was. They were confused and no longer avoided reef sounds during the day. Being attracted to reefs during daylight would make them easy meat for predators.”

Other work showed the fish also tended to lose their natural instinct to turn left or right – an important factor in schooling behaviour which also makes them more vulnerable, as lone fish are easily eaten by predators.

“All this led us to suspect it wasn’t simply damage to their individual senses that was going on – but rather, that higher levels of carbon dioxide were affecting their whole central nervous system.”

After studying the behavior of the fish, the research pinpointed the impacts, finding that  high CO2 directly stimulates a receptor in the fish brain called GABA-A, leading to a reversal in its normal function and over-excitement of certain nerve signals.

While most animals with brains have GABA-A receptors, the team considers the effects of elevated CO2 are likely to be most felt by those living in water, as they have lower blood CO2 levels normally. The main impact is likely to be felt by some crustaceans and by most fishes, especially those which use a lot of oxygen.

About 2.3 billion tons of human CO2 emissions dissolve into the world’s oceans every year, causing changes in the chemical environment of the water in which fish and other species live.

“We’ve now established it isn’t simply the acidification of the oceans that is causing disruption — as is the case with shellfish and plankton with chalky skeletons — but the actual dissolved CO2 itself is damaging the fishes’ nervous systems.”

The work shows that fish with high oxygen consumption are likely to be most affected, suggesting the effects of high CO2 may impair some species worse than others – possibly including important species targeted by the world’s fishing industries.

The team’s latest paper “Near-future CO2 levels alter fish behaviour by interfering with neurotransmitter function” by Göran E. Nilsson, Danielle L. Dixson, Paolo Domenici, Mark I. McCormick, Christina Sørensen, Sue-Ann Watson, and Philip L. Munday appears in the journal Nature Climate Change.

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7 Responses

  1. Great, that the more research that is done, produces results that proves humans do indeed have an effect upon the environment. All this reminds me of a scene from the movie “Red October” when one Soviet submarine fired a torpedo at another, only to have it come back & blow up the original sender. I wont repeat the language used just before impact, but I think it drives home the point that is being made today.

  2. Seems as if you have read the executive summary and are formulating your opinions. The details are at best murky, if you look at the papaer in detail.

  3. As something that an individual family can do: we are gradually installing equipment to take attic heat in the summer and put it into the soil under the house. Add “wing” insulation, and it makes a noticeable reduction in both cooling and heating bills. You do need to pay for the pumping power. This can be installed in stages, except for the larger pipes from the attic to the basement.

    Water level is filled to the attic level to reduce pumping costs, and the system is drained in the fall before freezing weather. A plastic half barrel in the attic serves for an expansion tank.

  4. [...] in the long run, a new study has suggested. According to Professor Philip Munday of the ARC …Global warming: Is CO2 driving fish crazy?Summit County Citizens [...]

  5. [...] Global warming: Is CO2 driving fish crazy?Summit County Citizens VoiceBy Summit Voice SUMMIT COUNTY — Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the ocean may cause neural damage in fish, interfering with their ability to smell and participate in synchronized schooling maneuvers that make them less vulnerable to …Rising CO2 emissions 'damaging' fish brainsTimes of IndiaCarbon dioxide in oceans = Nerve gas for fish?GreenbangGlobal warming: Rising CO2 emissions 'damage' fish brainsTruthDiveABC Online -Record-Searchlight (blog) -Wildlife Newsall 13 news articles » Related News: Rising CO2 emissions ‘damaging’ fish brains – Times of India [...]

    • An Ingestion Of Carbons

      Rising concentrations
      of carbon dioxide in the oceans
      may cause neural damage in fish.

      And so here is CO2, in stand still traffic.
      Driving me crazy.
      ( What we call a rush hour jam up. )

      The horn blower with road rage behind me.
      The middle finger fluently speaking all languages.
      The fishtail driver weaving in and out to get a single length
      maneuvered in anguish. The fish looking up from the reef at we
      crazy humans car crawling over our bridges to some reach beyond.

      My car radio malfunctioning due to solar electromagnetic eruptions, always something to interrupt my thoughts.
      Tomorrow I plan to go to the beach and swim with the fishes.
      Hopefully. I wonder how many of them will remember me.
      My old school friends. Alpha receptive. No limitations.

      The day will be another test.
      An ingestion of carbons.
      Where will I start my questions.

  6. […] impacts to marine food chains. Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the ocean may also cause neural damage in fish, interfering with their ability to smell and participate in synchronized schooling maneuvers that […]

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